Winter 2016 Volume 18 No. 1
Political Relations between Turkey and Germany
Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 1 / 2016, pp. 11-21
Turkish-German relations go back to the 16th century and have since then been sustained in different realms, such as the military, diplomacy and economy. Naturally, different historical incidents have had different impacts on those relations and have shaped them each in a specific manner. This essay intends first of all to delineate the different stages which Turkish-German relations have undergone through history. Secondly, it will try to reflect on the qualitative changes in Turkish-German relations which have occurred as a result of historical developments. Touching upon issues like Turkey’s possible EU membership, the PKK problem, the rise of Islamophobia in Europe and the NSU case, it will try to elaborate on both the burdens and possibilities which presently underlie those relations.
Economic Relations between Turkey and Germany
Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 1 / 2016, pp. 21-35
This paper examines the economic relations between Turkey and Germany, Turkey’s number one trade partner for over a century. It first ascertains that the relations between the two countries are based on mutual interests rather than “historical friendship” or “brotherhood of arms.” Second of all, this paper explains, with data, how trade and mutual investments between Turkey and Germany have been developed. Third of all, this paper determines that the level of economic relations between Turkey and Germany is lower than it should be, considering their foreign policy orientations based on economic interest. Lastly, this paper underlines potential areas of contribution to the development of expanded economic relations.
German Media’s Perception of Turkey
STEFAN SULAIMAN WILMS
Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 1 / 2016, pp. 35-45
The difficulty of rendering a meaningful image of the German media’s perception of Turkey lies in the general character of modern media itself –as well as in its technical imperatives and economical paradigms. As the audience and consumers (and also as occasional producers) of a variety of media products, we are subject to an overall loss of quality, a lowering of professional standards, and a general degradation of the media’s discourse in the past 15 years. Of course, this is not something specific akin to the coverage of Turkey and its issues. However, the case of Turkey’s representation in the German media is particularly glaring.
Towards More Pragmatism: German Foreign Policy after the Euro Crisis
Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 1 / 2016, pp. 45-58
In a crisis-ridden Europe Germany is at the center of the debate regarding the question of future power and leadership within the EU. Even those analysts in the country, who in the past preferably referred to the country’s “culture of restraint” as the main characteristic principle of its foreign policy, today bemoan the shortcomings for more global influence in terms of targeted investments in “power and its responsible use” and ascribe it as the new, “irreplaceable” power center within Europe. The following article will analyze the debate by looking at Germany’s role in the most recent and relevant crises.
German–Iranian Relations after the Nuclear Deal: Geopolitical
and Economic Dimensions
Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 1 / 2016, pp. 59-77
Germany and Iran, being the most populated countries of Europe and West Asia respectively, have shared a long history on various levels, politically, economically and culturally. Traditionally, Germany has been deemed Iran’s closest partner in Europe although its policy towards Iran during the so-called nuclear crisis in the 2000s largely followed Washington’s lead due to Germany’s joining of the latter’s coercive diplomacy. With the start of the nuclear negotiations in 2013, Berlin has then played a positive role during the negotiations that culminated in the July 2015 nuclear deal. In light of these developments, this article will review German–Iranian political and economic relations.
Managing the Stigma: Islamophobia in German Schools
Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 1 / 2016, pp. 77-97
As Islamophobia is on the rise in German society it also reaches into public institutions like schools. Not only students are influenced by the bad image of Islam being reflected by many media reports and public debates, teaching staff are also not immune to the effect of hostile attitudes towards Islam and Muslims. However, the stigmatization of certain groups is especially problematic, given the hierarchical relationship between teachers and students. The following article presents some of the findings of an ongoing research project about the reactions of Muslim students to Islamophobia in German schools. It looks at Muslim religiosity as a kind of stigma in German society and evaluates the possible ways in which students who belong to the stigmatized group can react to and manage to cope with these attitudes. It also discusses the possible empowering role that religion can play for some of the students.
Germany’s Kurdish and PKK Policy: Balance and Strategy
Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 1 / 2015, pp. 97-123
Motivated by the allegations of Germany’s indirect support for the PKK, voiced frequently in recent years among the Turkish public, this study aims to analyze Germany’s Kurdish policy in general, and PKK policy in particular. The author posits that even though Berlin does not want to acknowledge that the PKK question impacts its country and seeks to keep the negative effects of it away from its soil, developments have pushed the German governments to follow a well-balanced political approach to the PKK question, which has significant domestic and foreign political dimensions for Germany. The article further argues that although Germany’s politics of balance disappoints and even frustrates Turkey and the PKK leadership alike at times, the policy has remained unchanged for years and seems unlikely to change in the future.
Brazil–Turkey Relations in the 2000s: Deconstructing Partnership
between Emerging Powers
Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 1 / 2016, pp. 123-143
Uncertainty about the state of the new global order and the dynamics that govern it permeate academic literature and policy inquiries. In this new world order “picking allies, making friends and containing adversaries […] promises to be an unclear, ambiguous and delicate process.”1 Using Brazil and Turkey as an example, this paper aims to understand how and why emerging countries choose to “partner up.” The paper focuses on the growing relations between the two countries in the areas of political and economic cooperation between 2008 and 2012. The theoretical proposal of the paper is to test whether realist or more constructivist explanations can account for the approximation of these seemingly unlikely partners. This is done by examining the ideas and interests behind the moves towards stronger bilateral ties between the two states.
Neo-Ottomanists and Neoconservatives: A Strange Alignment in the 1990s
Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 1 / 2016, pp. 143-165
In a curious and hitherto largely overlooked episode, the revisionist “neo-Ottomanist” ambitions of King Hussein of Jordan and Turgut Özal of Turkey converged during the 1990s with the interests of an influential group of “neoconservatives” centered in Washington to press for a radical redrawing of the Near Eastern political and territorial map. Due to a combination of material and normative limitations, neither Hussein’s nor Özal’s ambitions materialized, but the common central elements of their visions –a rejection of the nation-state system imposed on the region after the Ottoman Empire’s collapse; the evocation instead of past imperial greatness, updated to reflect contemporary democratic norms; and a style of rule characterized by a cosmopolitan and accommodating realpolitik– constitute an alternative to rival (authoritarian secular-nationalist, liberal, militant Islamist) prescriptions for the region’s future at a time when the erosion of the post-Ottoman status quo continues to accelerate.
The Relation between Identity and Security: A Comparative Study on
Kosovo and Macedonia
Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 1 / 2016, pp. 165-191
As a concept, identity and security are deeply intertwined on many different levels. The relationship between identity and security evokes structural correlation and identity necessitates security. In this context, both the security of identity and the identity of the security are explored. The constructivist approach, which attaches significance to “social construction” and “interaction” in International Politics, claims that the meanings that are given by the traditional theories to the concepts of security and foreign policy must be reconsidered. This paper is an attempt to interpret the effect of identity perceptions on security as a means to avert conflicts and security threats. The aim is to provide an identity based explanation to security problems. In the study, Macedonia and Kosovo are chosen as case studies. The findings propose improved solutions to security problems and contribute knowledge applicable to other similar security threats.
The Securitization of the Uyghur Question and Its Challenges
KILIÇ BUĞRA KANAT
Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 1 / 2016, pp. 191-220
The Crisis of the Uyghur problem has transformed into a key element of China’s overall national politics, identity politics, international image, national security perception, and relations with the Islamic world. No effort has been undertaken toward discussion of the issue or recognition of the existence of a problem. The region and its population continue to be perceived as a threat to the Chinese State. Because of this, Uyghur communities have become alienated from the state, and tension between Uyghurs and Han Chinese has escalated. The Uyghur issue has begun to grow into a geopolitical and strategic problem for the emerging economic power and regional ambitions of China. The first step for the solution is only possible if China changes its approach to the issue and relieves its security based approach to the problem.
Latin America in the Global Political Economy: Association,
Adaptation and Resistance
ARIEL GONZÁLEZ LEVAGGI
Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 1 / 2016, pp. 221-230
States, Banks and Crisis: Emerging Finance Capitalism in Mexico and Turkey
By Thomas Marois
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., 2012, 288 pages, £80.00, ISBN: 9780857938572.
Counter-globalization and Socialism in the 21st Century: The Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America
By Thomas Muhr
New York: Routledge, 2013, 250 pages, £90.00, ISBN: 9780415669078.
The Political Economy of Space in the Americas: The New Pax Americana
By Alejandra Roncallo
New York: Routledge, 2014, 212 pages, £90.00, ISBN: 9780415671545.
Formation of the Turkish Nation-State, 1920-1938
YEŞİM BAYAR, Reviewed by Adam McConnel, Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 1 / 2016, p. 231
Ally: My Journey across the American-Israeli Divide
MICHAEL B. OREN, Reviewed by Reviewed by Murat Ülgül, Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 1 / 2016, p. 233
Capricious Borders: Minority, Population, and Counter-conduct between Greece and Turkey
OLGA DEMETRIOU, Reviewed by Andreja Mesaric, Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 1 / 2016, p. 236
Muslims and Jews in France: History of a Conflict
MAUD S. MANDEL, Reviewed by Erdem Dikici, Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 1 / 2016, p. 238
Depicting the Veil: Transnational Sexism and the War on Terror
ROBIN LEE RILEY, Reviewed by Sarah Fischer, Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 1 / 2016, p. 240
Ottomans Imagining Japan: East, Middle East, and Non-Western Modernity at the Turn of the Twentieth Century
RENÉE WORRINGER, Reviewed by Atsuko Ichijo, Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 1 / 2016, p. 242
The Young Turks and the Boycott Movement: Nationalism, Protest and the Working Classes in the Formation of Modern Turkey
Y. DOĞAN ÇETİNKAYA, Reviewed by Klara Volaric, Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 1 / 2016, p. 244
Why the West Fears Islam: An Exploration of Muslims in Liberal Democracy
JOCELYNE CESARI, Reviewed by Petra Kuppinger, Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 1 / 2016, p. 246
Late Modernity, Individualization and Socialism: An Associational Critique of Neoliberalism
MATT DAWSON, Reviewed by Nurbanu Dursun, Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 1 / 2016, p. 249
Law, State, and Society in Modern Iran: Constitutionalism, Autocracy, and Legal Reform, 1906-1941
HADI ENAYAT, Reviewed by H. E. Chehabi, Insight Turkey, Vol. 18 / No. 1 / 2016, p. 251