Like most Muslim nation-states, Islamic ideals inspired Indian Muslims during their struggle against colonialism and potential prejudiced Hindu domination. These Islamic ideals entailed recognition of individual dignity and rights, equality and justice for all citizens in an independent nation. After independence, Pakistan deviated from those ideals and an independent Bangladesh emerged. Although Pakistan survived, jihad movements in Afghanistan and Kashmir gave rise to extremism in the name of Islam which has led to ethnic and sectarian clashes challenging the very existence of the country. This paper examines the significance of Islamic ideas in contemporary Pakistan.
Gregor Schoeler’s The Biography of Muhammad: Nature and authenticity was first published in German in 1996, which the author claims was an attempt “to demonstrate that we could reconstruct, on the basis of the sources available, reports which go back to persons in very close contact with Muhammad.” The author’s current book is an extension of the same thesis that has now been published as a part of Routledge Studies in Classical Islam.