Between Empire and Nation provides a coherent understanding of the events, the people, intellectual ideas, and initiatives that defined the reform movement among Bulgaria’s Muslims. It proves to be a significant contribution to a vital but neglected chapter in the history of Muslims in Bulgaria. In this regard, the work is not only essential for students studying Ottoman Balkans but also for scholars studying the formation of the Bulgarian nation-state. Just as significantly, the study promises to be useful for those scholars working on reform movements in the Muslim world. Bulgaria’s Muslims, like other Muslims in different parts of the world, grappled with the challenges of modernity and Islam in their writings. They also took an active role in transforming their major institutions, culture, and society as a minority group during the formative years of the Bulgarian nation-state.