The world politics of the 2020s seems to consist of two realities: People are concerned about an ecological catastrophe, as pollution kills millions and climate change threatens societies. The focus of this article is to discuss climate change, and state politics in the
Arctic in the context of the two realities. Behind this is the assumption that climate change mitigation is a challenge to state politics and national security. The commentary assumes that, although in world politics, there is a new (East-West) great power rivalry with its related conflicts, no armed conflicts appear in the Arctic, but environmental degradation and rapid climate change still threaten the people. The study firstly analyses how environmental issues came onto the political agenda of States, in particular, that of the Arctic states; secondly, it discusses huge investment packages and great power rivalry as substitutes for climate change mitigation, revealing the political inability of states; thirdly, it examines the Arctic from the point of view of functional cooperation on environmental protection, and that on science; and finally, it concludes what has possibly gone wrong in state politics related to the environment, and could be taken as the biggest challenge.