One of the ultimate matters the book makes the reader reconsider is that one cannot think of the Anatolian independence struggle independently of Syria and Iraq, an approach that has often been ignored by the literature. Moreover, it is important to consider this period as the continuation of the Empire, rather than a nationalist split. As the author asserts, it may be more appropriate to look for the origins of the nationalist disintegration only after the 1930s (p. 182). Therefore, it makes an important contribution to the literature in terms of positioning beyond the determinant boundaries of classical nationalist literature.
Competing Ideologies in the Late Ottoman Empire and Early Turkish Republic should be on the reading list of students and academics interested in the intellectual history of the Middle East, especially non-Turkish speaking readers. All in all, despite its deficiencies mentioned above, the book makes a handy contribution for those who would like to see an introductory comparison between the ideologies of the period through the lens of the selected and translated writings of the late Ottoman intellectuals.