Turkey and Saudi Arabia have been increasingly utilizing religious services as an instrument in their foreign policies. One of the most recent examples of such active engagement can be seen in Bulgaria. While Turkey has used its shared history and culture with Muslims in Bulgaria, Saudi Arabia has focused more on spreading its national religious identity, Wahhabism Considering these increasing endeavors, this study will focus on how and why the two countries have become active players in the religious sphere in Bulgaria. The study will try to explain the motivations behind such activities and address the impact of this activism on Bulgarian society. The study also aims to reveal motivations, methods and instruments that were utilized in this competition.
The United Arab Emirates is one of the leading countries in the Middle East in terms of active foreign policy. One of the most striking instruments of Emirate’s active foreign policy is the establishment of military bases abroad, which are located notably in the Horn of Africa. These bases are considered a sign of the UAE’s increasing military activities and its willingness to use hard power. This study, therefore, aims to make sense of why the Emirati leadership has pursued such an aggressive foreign policy that involves the use of military capacities. While the study focuses on understanding the foreign policy dynamics of the UAE, it also aims to analyze the real motivations behind the Emirati leadership’s decision to establish military bases.