Iran’s response to the rise of ISIL has been driven by realpolitik rather than religious identity. ISIL threatens to undermine Iran’s regional alliance structure and destabilize its borders. Iran has responded not only by mobilizing Shi’a militias but also working with the United States and the Kurds. Nevertheless, this pragmatic approach may prove unstable over the long term. Iran’s new relationship with the United States remains fragile, and Iran’s regional interests conflict with those of the Sunni members of the anti-ISIL alliance.