When the three books under review are examined together, it is possible to identify some common themes. One of them is that the European states and the EU at large did not efficiently tackled the 2015 refugee crisis. The concept of ‘refugee crisis’ itself has been used to describe not the troublesome journey immigrants have to make, but the catastrophe triggered by the European countries’ failed management of the situation. Despite the fact that people have valid reasons for immigrating, and some of the countries have the power to accept asylum seekers, they failed to do so and, as a result, their anti-immigration policy mobilized some part of their civil societies. In this respect, civil societies are positioned against decision-makers and humanitarian motives such as solidarity become a political stance.