This article focuses on how virtual social networks affect socio-political life. The main theme of the article is how social networks such as Facebook and Twitter can direct voters’ electoral preferences, especially during election time, through the dissemination of manipulative content and fake news. The use of social media, which was initially thought to have a positive effect on democratization, has been extensively discussed in recent years as threat to democracy. Examples from the 2016 U.S. presidential elections, France, Brexit, Germany, the UK and Turkey will be used to illustrate the risks that social networks pose to democracy, especially during election periods.
There have been many debates about whether Islam and democracy are compatible. Freedom of speech issues, and debates about the nature of Islam abound in recent times. The cartoon crises of recent years, the Charlie Hebdo attack and other developments have led to a widening of the debate.