The EU is now considered as an actor in international relations in many ways. Considering that it is dependent on energy imports, it is interesting to watch the actorness of the EU in energy relations as well. In this article, the external actorness of the EU in its energy relations is analysed and specified based on a set of predefined criteria of a modified concept: (i) the diplomatic apparatus and policy tools the actor uses in its energy relations; (ii) the consistency and specificity of the external energy policy and the goals and interests pursued by the EU in regard to it, and (iii) the actor’s perception of a third party which is accepted and recognised as an autonomous actor in the energy field by other actors. The criteria are then applied to a case study focused on Algeria in order to demonstrate whether the EU can be considered as an actor.
The OSCE has until now been the only security organization which directly participated in the effort to de-escalate the war in Eastern Ukraine. As cultural approaches to strategic studies can be also applied to international organizations, this study argues that the OSCE was involved in the attempt to stabilize and resolve the situation partly due to its specific strategic culture. We identify the specific features of the strategic culture of the OSCE as an example of regional security governance between ‘non-allies’ based on the discoursive analysis of OSCE documents and demonstrate how these identified features were reflected in the activities of the OSCE in the conflict in Ukraine.