There is no doubt that Türkiye’s relationship with Europe1 has been the most important issue in Turkish foreign policy in recent centuries. Just as the Ottoman Empire’s expansion primarily occurred in Europe, the Ottoman government in İstanbul dealt with European states more than others during the empire’s decline and disintegration. Due to the West’s economic and military superiority in recent centuries, European countries naturally played a crucial role in shaping Turkish foreign policy in the Republican period. It is important to recall that Türkiye was compelled to address its main foreign policy issues of the interwar period, the fate of Mosul and Hatay, with Britain and France as opposed to Iraq and Syria. During the same period, European nations remained Türkiye’s main trade partners.