In the beginning of the 20th century, relations between states began to transform into a global system that included non-state actors. In addition to states as the main actors of international relations, non-state actors have since that time played a crucial role in the international system. Ali Erken’s book, America and the Making of Modern Turkey: Science, Culture and Political Alliances, explores the activities of American philanthropic organizations in Turkey, such as the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations. This book provides readers with extensive research based on archival records. It consists of four chapters, along with an introduction and conclusion. All four chapters revolve around questions about the investments of American foundations in Turkey after the 1920s.